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Among the leading public research and development institutions are the research centers and institutes connected to TUBITAK, the agricultural research units, the Chairmanship of Refik Saydam Hifzissihha (Public Health) Center and the General Directorate of Mineral Exploration and Research (MTA).

The Marmara Research Center (MAM), one of the research and development units connected to TUBITAK, continues research activities with approximately 400 researchers at its facilities, constructed on a large area in Gebze. A very broad spectrum of research and development activities are under- taken at the center, established in 1972, including geological sciences, genetic engineering and biotechnology, electronics and cryptology, information technologies, space sciences and technologies, materials and chemical technologies, food science and technologies, environment and energy systems. The two other smaller scale research and development units of TUBITAK are TUBITAK Information Technologies and Electronic Research Institute (BULTEN) and TUBITAK Defense Industry Research and Development Institute (SAGE).

Besides these, TUBITAK also provides some technological facilities. The main units providing these facilities are the National Metrology Institute, TUBITAK National Observatory, the National Academic Network and Data Center and the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory in Ankara. Among the organizations for research, development, application and education activities in the nuclear field are the Ankara Nuclear Research and Education Center (ANAEM), the Cekmece Nuclear Research and Education Center (CNAEM) and the Lalahan Animal Health Nuclear Research Institute, which are units connected to the Turkish Atomic Energy Commission.

There are 64 research organizations in Turkey, where more than 1,000 researchers work, in the fields of developing agriculture, forestry and aquaculture. A total of 42 of these organizations undertake their work connected to the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, 11 connected to the Ministry of Forestry and 11 connected to the General Directorate of Village Services of the Prime Ministry.

Among the objectives for the establishment of the Chairmanship of the Refik Saydam Hifzissihha (Public Health) Center, that is the foremost research and development organization in the field of health and where around 150 researchers work, is to engage in research to protect and improve public health.

The General Directorate of Mineral Exploration and Research (MTA) is a scientific and technological research organization established to provide support to the mining sector and, the development of the country, by engaging in research in the field of geological sciences in general. According to MTA data, it has 1,186 researchers engaged in basic and applied research and development in the fields of geology, geophysics, technology research, chemistry and mining.