Ataturk realized the reforms with the leadership of the Republican People's Party (CHP), which had been established not as a party of any class or group in the society, but as a party of all the people, and these reforms were adopted by the people. A short time after the CHP was established, the first experiment for a transition to a multiparty system was made.

The opponents of the secular and modernizing policies of the government, and who thought that the reforms were not compatible with the social and political structure of Turkey, including a group of commanders from the National War of Independence, such as Rauf Orbay, Kazim Karabekir and Ali Fuat Cebesoy, resigned from the CHP and established the Progressive Republican Party on 17 November 1924. Kazim Karabekir was elected as the chairman of this first opposition party.

The Party was "conservative", not "reactionary" both regarding its program and the mentality of its founders. However, because it was the only opposition party, those whose interests were harmed by the reforms, supported this party, thus escalating the political passions. In fact, many who were against the Republic and secular developments joined this party.

Meanwhile, the reactionary Sheik Said rebellion broke out in Southeastern Anatolia and the government closed the Progressive Republican Party on 3 June 1925. The second experiment with multiparty democracy in the Ataturk period, started with the establishment of the Free Republican Party on 12 August 1930. The Free Party was established with the approval of Ataturk himself.

The party was established by Fethi Okyar, the former Prime Minister who was known for his opposition to Ismet Inonu. However, the new party grew at an unexpectedly rapid pace. The reactionary powers against the Republic, which also made use of the problems created by the world economic crisis in 1929, started to use the new party for their own objectives. Especially, due to the unfortunate events which occurred during Fethi Okyar's trip to Izmir, the party dissolved itself on 17 November 1930.

The Republic administration first of all adopted a model based on private enterprise for developing the backward economy it had inherited, but in time it was forced to adopt statism to an increasing degree.

During the Ataturk period, a foreign policy was followed based on the borders of the National Pact of 1920 and on peace. As the result of successful diplomacy, the Montreux Agreement was signed in 1936, ensuring that the Istanbul and the Dardanelles (Canakkale) Straits were included in the national defense system.

Friendship policies to be followed with all the neighboring countries were made widespread with the Balkan Pact in 1934 and the Sadabad Pact in 1937. The peace policy aimed at Europe and a correct evaluation of the international conditions made it possible to have Hatay rejoin Turkey. Hatay, which had previously been given to the French, was first given independence and then it was rejoined to Turkey as the result of a referendum.

Meanwhile, the League of Nations, refusing the Turkish requests, decided that the Mosul and Kirkuk regions should stay under British control. Hatay was the final foreign policy problem in which Ataturk took an interest. Ataturk, with his dynamism, strong intuitions, accurate assessments of the balances of power and correct evaluations of domestic and foreign conditions, left behind a state which had heartily adopted the reforms and modernized institutions, which had taken significant steps in the direction of the Western model when he passed away on 10 November 1938.