After the decline of the Uigur State, the Karahanid State was founded in 840 by the Turkish tribes such as the Karluks, Cigils and Arguls. The reign of the Karahanids is considered to be a turning point in Turkish history, because Islam was accepted as the official religion during the reign of Satuk Bugra Khan, the Karahanid leader. Being the first Muslim Turkish state established in Central Asia, they laid the foundations of an historical development called Turkish-Islamic culture and civilization.

The Karahanids, whose first city of governance was Kash- gar and second was Balasagun to the north, was divided between two brothers in 1042: the Eastern Karahanids and the Western Karahanids. The Eastern Karahanid State surviv- ed until 1211 and then accepted the sovereignty of the Great Seljuk State. Islamic-Turkish literature was developed during the rule of the Karahanid State which was custom- arily governed by just, religious, and culture loving Khans and Kashgar and Balasagun became important cultural centers.

At the time of the rule of the Karahanids, there was another Turkish state of which the capital city was Ghazna in Afghanistan. The most powerful period of the Ghaznavid State (936-1187) was the reign of Mahmud of Ghazna who used the title of "Sultan" for the first time. Sultan Mahmud, who organized many campaigns to India, took these places under Turkish rule, Islamized them and laid the foundation for today's State of Pakistan. The rulers succeeding Sultan Mahmud could not maintain this brilliant period. The Ghaznavids had to retreat to India after the Dandanakan War with the Seljuks in 1040 and finally came under the sovereignty of the Seljuks.

Another great Turkish state was the Seljuk State (1040-1157) founded by the Seljuk Bey who was a member of the Kinik tribe of the Oghuz Turks. The borders of the state covered an area from the Marmara Sea to the Balkhash Lake in Central Asia and from the Caucasus, the Caspian Sea and the Aral Sea to the borders of India and Yemen. There- fore, it was named the Great Seljuk State.

At the time of Seljuk rule, there were also two other great and strong Turkish states, namely the Karahanids and Ghaznavids. The Seljuks entered into a struggle of hegemony with these two Turkish states and were successful in establishing Turkish unity. Togrul Bey, the Sultan of the Seljuks, entered Baghdad, the Abbasid Caliphate capital and ended the domination of the Buwayhids, a Persian Shiite dynasty, in 1055. Therefore, the Caliph bestowed on Togrul Bey the title of "Ruler of the World".

During the reign of Sultan Alp Arslan, the successor of Togrul Bey, the territories of the country expanded signi- ficantly. The most significant events of this period were the clashes with the Byzantine Empire. Sultan Alp Arslan inflict- ed a crushing defeat on the Byzantine army un- der the leadership of Romanus Diogenes at Manzikert (Malazgirt) in 1071. This victory firmly established Turkish rule in Anatolia. During the reign of Sultan Malik Shah, one of the most powerful rulers of the Seljuks, the Seljuk State experienced her most successful period in the fields of military, science, politics and literature. Madrasahs (theological schools) were opened all over the country. The most important of these was the Nizamiye Madrasah constructed by the Vizier Nizam al-Mulk which was the foundation for the architecture of the Western universities.

After Sultan Malik Shah died, the country was divided into small states. The Syrian Seljuks (1092-1117), Iraq and Khorasan Seljuks (1092-1194), Kirman Seljuks (1092-1187) and the Anatolian Seljuks (1092-1194) were among the small states. During the disintegration period of the Great Seljuk State many small beylics and atabeylics were also established on the Anatolian territories of the state. These beylics played an important role in making Anatolia Turkish through the Turkish population they brought and also the architectural works they made. These beylics played an important role in the strengthening of the Anatolian Seljuk State which was established later in Anatolia.

Moreover, the Khorezm Shah State (1097-1231) was estab- lished by Mohammed Khorezm Shah, the son of Anushtegin, the palace servant of Sultan Malik Shah, on the territories of the Great Seljuk State. The Khorezm Shah State made significant progress in science and politics.

The most important state established in the place of the Great Seljuk State is definitely the Anatolian Seljuk State. Suleiman ibn Qutulmish who established himself at Nicaea (Iz- nik) in 1078 tried to expand Turkish rule in Anatolia and he managed to spread his rule all over Anatolia in a short period of time. During the reign of his son, Kilic Arslan I, the First Crusade began, Iznik was seized by the Crusaders and given to the Byzantines. Kilic Arslan I then established himself in the city of Konya and started a war of attrition against the invaders. However, he could not stop the Crusaders who were heading towards Syria. The efforts to unify Anatolia under Turkish rule were also continued during the reign of his successor, Sultan Mesud I. He repelled the Byzantine army headed for Konya and defeated the Crusaders near the Ceyhan River. Sultan Kilic Arslan II, the successor of Mesud I, made the Byzantine intrigues against the Turks ineffective and inflicted a heavy defeat on the Byzantine army under the leadership of the Emperor Manuel Comnenus I, at Myriokephalon near Denizli (1176). Following this victory, the influence of the Byzantine Empire over Anatolia was completely lost. Thereafter, trade flourished and construction activities accelerated. Caravan- serais were built on the roads and shipyards were constructed in Sinop and the Mediterranean, the madrasahs were opened and important developments were made in science. The most brilliant period of Turkish history was experienced during the reign of Sultan Alaeddin Keykubad I. However, the death of the Sultan by poisoning created chaos in the country.

The religio-political rebellion of the Babais was followed by the Mongolian invasion and Anatolia was occupied by the Mongolians after the Kosedag War between the Seljuks and Mongolians in 1243. Along with the weakening of the Mongolian rule towards the end of the thirteenth century, the Turkoman groups who were settled at the frontiers during the Seljuk period, founded many beylics (principalities) of varying sizes in Anatolia. The Karaman, Germiyan, Esref, Hamid, Mentese, Candar, Pervane, Sahib Ata, Karesi, Saruhan, Aydin, Inanc and Osmanogullari were among the Turkoman beylics founded in Anatolia in this period. In this period, which is called the Beylics Period, all of Anatolia came under Turkish rule and a new period of welfare began in the country which had been previously exposed to a great extent to Mongolian destruction. As a matter of fact, the Ottoman state was founded on these solid foundations.

In Egypt, the army commander Izzeddin Aybeg was declar- ed the Sultan, after the death of es-Salih Necmeddin, the last Ayyubid ruler and thus the Turkish Kolemen Mameluke) State (1250-1382) was founded. The Mameluke State has an important place in Turkish history, because during the reign of Sultan Aybeg, the Mansure Victory was won which made the Seventh Crusade ineffective. During the reign of Seyfeddin Kotuz, the Mongolian-Armenian-Crusaders alliance which tried to invade Egypt suffered a heavy defeat and the Mongolians were not able to enter Syria.

During the period of the later Sultans, the Christian hegemony in Syria would end and the territories extending to Kayseri in Anatolia would be taken under the rule of the Mameluke Sultanate. In addition, trade between the east and the west developed during this period. The Mameluke Sultans were bestowed the title of "Hadimu'l-Harameyn" (the Servant of Mecca and Medina), due to their services to Islam, and acquired a justified fame in the Islamic World. The Mameluke State was wiped out by the Ottoman State. One of the most important states of the fourteenth century was the Tamerlane State (1370-1507). It was founded by Tamerlane, who was a provincial governor in one of the Cagatay khanates. The borders of the state extended from the Volga River to the Ganges River in India, and from the Tanri Mountains to Izmir and Damascus.

Tamerlane, who had a violent character, caused great damage during his military expeditions.The state became an empire in a period of 35 years. It disintegrated just as rapidly as it was established after the death of Tamerlane. Muhammed, his grandson, founded a state in Samarkand. Pir Muhammed and Iskender, his other grandsons, founded a state in Iran. Miranshah, his son, founded states in Baghdad and Azerbaijan. Shahruh, his younger son, founded a state in Khorasan. During the period of Shahruh, who tried to establish unity by enlarging the borders of his state, a brilliant cultural life was started.His son Ulug Bey ascended the throne as a well-known astronomer. Only Huseyin Baykara from the Tamerlane dynasty could manage to hold out in Khorasan. Herat, the capital city, became one of the most significant cultural centers of Turkish history. Ali Sir Nevai, the Turkish poet and statesman, was educated here. Herat was seized by the Uzbeks after the reign of Baykara and the Tamerlane dynasty disappeared.

When the Tamerlane State was established, the Turkoman group of the Karakoyunlu, which settled between Irbil and Nakhichevan, founded a state, the center of which was Tabriz. This state formed by the Yiva, Yazir, Doger and Avsar tribes of the Oghuz Turks was called the Karakoyunlu State (1380-1469). The Karakoyunlu State fought with Tamerlane. Kara Yusuf, the ruler of the Karakoyunlu State, had to take refuge in the Ottoman state during the reign of Yildirim Beyazid as a result of pressure by Tamerlane. This strained relations be- tween the Ottomans and the Tamerlanes and was considered to be a reason for the Ankara War of 1402. Kara Yusuf, who managed to recover after this war, reestablished his state after 1406 and captured Mardin, Erzincan, Baghdad, Azerbaijan, Tabriz, Kazvin, and Sultaniye. After his death, the country was dragged into chaos. Although Cihan-shah managed to reunify the state, he was defeated by Akkoyunlu Uzun Hasan at Mardin and the country entered under the hegemony of the Akkoyunlu State.

The Akkoyunlu State (1350-1502) was founded by Turko- man tribes who settled around Diyarbakir. It emerged as a union under the leadership of Tur Ali Bey. The Akkoyunlu State fought against the Trabzon Greek Empire to the north in this period. The real founder of the state is known to be Kara Yuluk Osman Bey. The most powerful period of the Akkoyunlu State was the reign of Uzun Hasan. During his reign the borders of the state extended from the Caspian Sea to Syria, and from Azerbaijan to Baghdad. For this reason, Uzun Hasan saw himself as the person who could establish the union of the Turks and identified himself with Tamerlane and made plans to abolish the Ottoman State and the Egyptian Sultanate. He established political relations with the European states, namely the Christian world, to obtain firearms to realize his goal. However, his defeat in the Otlukbeli Battle in 1473 by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmet I was a heavy blow for Uzun Hasan. This defeat helped the collapse of the Akkoyunlu State and paved the way for the founding of the Safavid State (1501-1736) by Shah Ismail who managed to get the Turkoman groups of Ustacli, Rumlu, Musullu, Tekeli, Bayburtlu, Karadagli, Dulkadirli, Karamanli, Varsak and Avsar on his side. At the time when Shah Ismail established the Turkish political union in Iran, a great part of the Indian subcontinent was also united under Turkish rule. Meanwhile, the Ottoman State took almost all of Anatolia under its rule and also started to expand its Eastern and Western borders.

Shah Ismail, who founded a political union in Iran, expanded his territories. In his conquests the religious fervor of the Shiite sect played a role. However, his activities in Anatolia, and also his attempts to annex Anatolia, provoked the reaction of the Ottoman Sultan Selim I (Selim the Grim). Shah Ismail's army was seriously defeated at the Battle of Caldiran in 1514. Still, all his successors, especially Shah Tahmasp continued fighting against the Ottomans. However, they were defeated in almost all the battles they fought. When Nadir Shah of the Avsar tribe established his own dynasty following the reign of Abbas III, the Safavid period came to an end.

The reign of the Safavids had an important place in history. Shah Ismail and the other members of the dynasty were known for their love of art. In this period, literature, architecture and handicrafts such as tile-making, pottery and textiles developed and great advances were made in bookbinding, decoration and calligraphy.

Zahiruddin Babur, a member of the Tamerlane dynasty, entered India and founded the Turkish-Indian (Babur) Empire (1526-1858). He became famous for his work written in Turkish called Vekayi Baburname. After his death, in the reigns of his sons, Humayun and Ekber, this state developed even more and a large portion of the Indian subcontinent was united under a single rule. The period of Hurrem, who had assumed the name of Shah-Cihan (Shah of the World) upon ascending the throne, was the most brilliant period of the empire in politics and art. The Taj Mahal at Agra, which is considered to be one of the most beautiful architectural monuments in the world, was constructed during his reign. Architects were also sent from the Ottoman State for the construction of the monument. These good relations with the Ottoman State also continued during the reign of his son, Alemgir I. He gave asylum to the Ottoman governors of Basra who were fighting against the Portuguese in the Indian Ocean and the Persian Gulf. The internal turmoil which began after the death of Alemgir I continued until the reign of Shah Bahadir II. The British who suppressed a revolt in the country in 1857 annexed India to Britain and Queen Victoria was officially declared the Empress of India.