Throughout history the Turks have established numerous states in different geographical areas on the continents of Asia, Europe and Africa. Therefore, they encountered different cultures, they influenced these cultures and were influenced by them.

The Chinese records reported that the first appearance of the Turks in history was in the Kogmen Mountains, where the most ancient remains were found. The culture referred to as Tagar, featuring remains found on the Tagar Island at the Yenisei River on the northern foot of the Kogmen Mountains and dating back to the seventh century B.C., is attributed to the ancient Turks.

The Tagar Culture, however, originated from another ancient culture called the Karasuk which flourished on the same shores, which dates back to two thousand B.C. It is accepted that Turkish political history in Asia starts with the Huns.

The Hun State , which first appeared in the third century B.C., became a significant and powerful state during the reign of its founder, Mete Khan, and passed through fundamental changes, economically and socially, due to her relations with China.

Having a defined and certain strategy, Mete first of all defeated the Mongolians and then the Yuechis, and thereafter, having taken the western gates and trade routes of China under his control, he gained significant economic power. This systematic expansion policy resulted in the seizure of Eastern Turkestan, the wheat and provisions granary, by the Huns.

After the collapse of the Asian Hun State, a new state called the Gokturk was founded by the Turkish tribes who adopted the traditions and administrative experiences of the Huns.

The Gokturk State (552-740) is the second great state established by the Turks. Unlike the Huns, the Gokturks attached particular importance to urbanization, realized agricultural reforms and seed improvement and "sagacity" was the foremost concept.

Bilge Khan and Kultegin, took their place in history as the wisest and most heroic figures among Turkish statesmen. They asserted that the state could not be ruled only by fighting and bravery and the Khanate should also require wisdom. It was because of this that both the Khans and Tonyukuk, another Gokturk Khan, immortalized their accomplishments with inscriptions.

These inscriptions are the first written texts of the Turkish language. The Gokturk State collapsed after struggles with the Chinese, on the one hand, and with the Turkish tribes within the state, such as the Dokuz Oguzlar, Karluks and Basmils, on the other hand. The Uigur Turks, who were the native tribes of the Orhun and Selenge valleys, founded the third great Turkish state.

The Uigur State (741-840) attached importance to trade and continued the traditions and customs of the Gokturks. The trade developed and the Manichean temples were turned into bazaar temples in time due to the influence of Manicheism, the official religion. The warlike aspects of the Uigurs gradually grew weaker in time as they developed culturally and commercially. The Kyrgyz Turks living to the northwest, took advantage of this situation and planned a surprise attack on the Uigur capital city, which resulted in a war and at the end the Uigur state collapsed.