Pipeline transportation, besides maritime transportation, displayed a rapid development, especially after the 1960s, for the transportation of crude oil and petroleum products in the world economy. However, domestic transportation in Turkey remained based on highways and highway tankers.

The first pipeline was laid between Batman and Dortyol (Iskenderun Gulf) by the Turkish Petroleum Corporation (TPAO) and was put into service in 1966. This line was connected by secondary lines to the production fields of Shell and Mobil in Siirt and Diyarbakir Province. The Iraq-Turkey Crude Oil Pipeline, which is the most important petroleum pipeline in Turkey, was put into service in 1977.

The total length of the pipeline is 981 km. A 340 km section of it is in Iraq and the remaining 641 km section is in Turkey. There are a total of five pumping stations along the pipeline, including two in Iraq and three in Turkey. Its capacity is 35 million tons per annum based on the calculation of 700,000 barrels per day. When the pumping stations are added, the capacity can be increased to 900 thousand barrels per day (45 million tons per annum).

The pipeline which was closed in 1990 due to the Gulf Crisis was temporarily and partially reopened with an agreement signed between the United Nations and Iraq in 1997. However, petroleum transportation activity on this line is at the minimum level and the negative effects of this situation on the subject of the financing of the sectoral investments are continuing.

In addition, the initiatives directed at the realization of the pipelines to transport the crude oil and natural gas to be produced in Central Asia and the Caucasus Regions to the Western European markets through Turkey have been continuing. Furthermore, the international petroleum and natural gas projects, with Caspian-Mediterranean Crude Oil Pipeline in the first place, are given special importance.